"Simple deeds done are better than big deeds planned".
Here the similar saying goes in my case.
In India , festivals and rituals are the part of the routines.
1. In the last 6-7 yrs, I have not celebrated Diwali. As all ready there is sound, air pollution etc. In India the case is worst. Global Warming is an Alarm for we human beings.I have been spreading this message amongst my friend circle and the younger ones.
I believe that at least we have one person in each community then there will be slighter change.
2. I insist that my family don't use a plastic bags if possible for me.
3. At Nagpur, we have trees planted by Cooperation but was not looked after.When I first saw them ,it's stems and roots were littered with all kind of waste and didn't show it's real greenery. I and my father cleaned it and watered it everyday until it showed the possible growth and color.
During my job in State of Qatar 1980 _1999 I was head of plants production sec. Garden department. I introduced number of new varieties of all plants which were salt tolerant and water resistant. Produced several thousand of date tissue culture palms now fruiting all over qatar. Produced millions of other trees shrubs ground covers cactus etc. During my stay in Pakistan worked on fruiting varieties of olives trees. I suppose I did a little towards improving environment and it is hard to produce greenery in place like Qatar. shah .
Having a green earth is not just a hope but a must destiny with clean environment. In the year 2000 I started my work towards clean and green environment which gives me peace in my life, I request all the people of the world just give daily one hour for 'clean and green' it will definately solve lots of our upcoming problems unknowingly. Now I am a student of development studies in humanities and social science depatment of Indian institute of technology,guwahati, India.
It was amazing to participate in such a huge mobilization! Last year, when the Bolivian government announced the construction of a road that would pass through the middle of a National Paz, we started a mobilization in order to stop the construction of that road. It was just amazing!
Je m'appelle Rachid Mekkaoui Alaoui, vice présidente de l'association pour la protection de l'environnement et développement durable à Errachidia (APEDDE)crée en décembre 2001. Elle a organisée plusieurs activités de sensibilisation sur la protection de l'environnement. Voici quelque unes:
En 2005, l'association pour la protection de l'environnement et développement durable à Errachidia (APEDDE), où je suis le vice présidente, a gagnée la 3ème prix de grand prix Hassan II de l'environnement: Production de six chansons sur la protection de l'environnement.
Le 6 Janvier 2008, en coopération avec le centre de développement de de la région Tensift, l'association pour la protection de l'environnement et développement durable à ERRACHIDIA, a organisée le festival de l'eau en faveur de 50 élèves rurales: Diffusion un film documentaire sur le cycle de l'eau + organisation d'un atelier de peinture + distribution des prix pour les meilleurs oeuvre + visite de terrain (puits, source bleue de Meski, l'oued)+
animation ) pour expliquer les avantages et les risques et les précautions à prendre.
APEDDE a Organisée des campagnes de reboisement au centre ville d'Errachidia.
APEDDE a Organisée une campagne de propreté aux célèbres dunes de sable de Merzouga avec la participation effective des élèves locaux.
APEDDE a Organisée une campagne de propreté au centre ville de Rissani avec la participation effective des élèves locaux, en partenariat avec la province d'Errachidia.
MINFOF Emergency Action Plan For Safeguarding Protected Areas Published
The FCFA 120 billion plan provoked by the Bouba Ndjidda elephant massacre and which already benefits from the support of the ministry’s main donor bodies was presented and validated by the Prime Minister and Head of Government, Philemon Yang recently in Yaounde.
By Polycarp Labah
The elephant, most especially its tusk or ivory has become best seller on the world illicit market. The ivory sells like hot cake in this black market. As such it demand has gone high on the international market making many to indulge in its trade which has remained illegal. Surveys carried out by conservationists say that in the 1980s, the elephant population stood at 1 million. 70.000 elephants are killed every year the world over. As at now the report laments, only 470.000 elephants are left. Because it is illegal, traffickers have devised various means to get it by hook or by crook. The weapons used to get the raw material are sophisticated and these include warheads. The recent incident in Cameroon where an onslaught has been declared on these endangered species is cause for concern to the Cameroonian Government. The 128 elephants massacred at the Bouba Ndjidda National Park at the beginning of this year raise eye-brows. The worst about these onslaughts are that the assailants kill, maim and handicap the helpless eco-guards cart away only the ivory and allow the carcasses to rot. Caught with such macabre increasing spectacles, Government could not fold its arms in the face of this wanton human and material destruction. After several fact-findings meetings on the field with various stakeholders, public, private and donor bodies, culminating in the inter-ministerial meeting of April 11, 2012, the Minister of Forestry and Wildlife, Ngole Philip Ngwese presents an in-depth remedial report titled, “ Emergency Action Plan For Safeguarding Protected Areas.”
This 7 page report tackles causes and effects of poaching and proposes immediate, short, medium and long term solutions for eradication.
The report notes that poaching, frequent human and animal conflicts, mining exploration and agro-industrial farming especially at frontier zones have remained disturbing phenomena to the peaceful co-existence of the habitat, the recent spectacular elephant onslaught at the Bouba Ndjidda National Park serving as a major kicker. It notes that Cameroon adhered to the 41992 Rio de Janeiro declarations and its agenda 21 which requests signatories to allocate 10 % of their territory for conservation of biodiversity and that even though Cameroon has allocated 20 %, meeting set objectives has been hampered by conflicting interests since 2003.
.Minister Ngole Philip Ngwese identifies that insufficient staff, lack of equipment, motivation, transhumance etc have contributed in producing inadequate results on the field.
He buttressed his point by explaining that he deployed 462 eco-guards on the field last April 10, 2012 to add to the 300 that were already out there to take care of the 28 protected areas in the country which cover 3.699.000 hectares. This gives an average of 10 guards per protected area and that this number falls short because international norms require that one guard takes care of 1000 hectares in the forest zone and 1500 hectares in the savannah zone.
Other factors identified which militate negatively in the enhancement of protected areas have been identified as poor working conditions, lack of career profiles and exposure to high risks. Eco-guards lack basic working material including uniforms, boots etc. Arms available even though in insufficient quantities are obsolete. At the 21st century it is difficult to find 2 guns in good state at any protected area whereas poachers and traffickers use sophisticated arms and ammunition like the Kalashnikov as was the case recently in Bouba Ndjidda National park. These poachers usually operate in gangs making it difficult for one eco-guard to resist attack. Their attacks have been noticed to be very violent and result in the loss of human lives, maiming etc. MINFOF statistics show that at least 3 eco-guards are killed every year. Other difficulties they encounter are the inaccessibility of the terrain, no means of movements, skirmishes between farmers and wild animal, the encroachment of industrial farmers, miners, petroleum explorers and construction companies.
The MINFOF report noted with regret the border and trans-border trafficking of ivory in the parks of Waza, Faro, Korup, Takamanda etc perpetrated by the dealers from Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Nigeria, Congo through an easy flow of arms and warheads like the case of Bouba Ndjidda where close to 130 elephants were massacred by Sudano-Chadian assailants using sophisticated arms.
Justification Of the Need For A MINFOF Emergency Action Plan.
According to the report which has been appended by committed apostles of biodiversity and the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife partners for the reinforcement and sustainability of our protected areas, it aims at reinforcing the capacities of the personnel through training and equipment, provide them the financial and material means to enable them carry out their duties, maintain protected areas and make them of them a point of reference of the nation.
Since 2006, the department of forestry and protected areas has been charged with the responsibility to ensure the maintenance and upkeep of wildlife and protected areas.
For the next four years beginning this 2012, the entire ministry has prioritized human resource and equipment reinforcement. For instance, 2500 youths will be recruited as per the report. From this number, there will be 50 engineers, 150 senior technicians, technicians and agents and 2000 eco-guards. 300 ex-soldiers and gendarmes will be recruited as trainers.
To begin with, the ministry of forestry and wildlife has deployed 462 eco-guards on the field this year. It has equally stepped up military and technical training and will increase motivation, bonuses and risk allowances. Hard work and bravery shall be compensated. Work accidents shall equally be compensated.
To Stem Poaching / Trafficking
To stem poaching and trafficking at border and trans-border areas like Bouba Ndjidda, Government has placed a rapid intervention battalion at Rey Bouba and the North Anti Poaching Committee put on maximum alert with 4 more anti poaching committees created. The ministry of forestry and wildlife will sign an agreement with the ministry of defence to reinforce air and land surveillance. Further agreements will be sought between neighbouring countries in order to oversee anti poaching activities in their areas.
Government requires arms and ammunitions in order to meet up with the challenges. According to Minister Ngole Philip Ngwese’s report, 3000 guns are needed for eco-guards with 300.000 bullets half of which will be rubber bullets. Trainers will need 300 guns with 30.000 bullets half of which will be rubber bullets. Arms and ammunition, uniforms, boots and other equipment will enhance good results beginning this 2012. Orientation material and the putting in place of management plans to guarantee surveillance have been concluded. Measures will be put in place to check encroachments of all forms and demarcation boundaries planted. Government has promised to shoulder damages caused by wild animals to farmers and will encourage participatory approach to development.
The putting in place of a National Council for Territorial Development will iron out incessant conflicts pitting protected areas and structural projects etc.
The MINFOF report discloses that the ministry will need FCFA 3 billion to purchase arms and ammunitions as an emergency measure and the rest shall follow suit progressively as from 2013.
The emergency plan falls squarely with Government’s Growth and Strategic Paper which once accomplished, will make Cameroon a tourist destination i.e. if protected areas are developed and well protected. To attain this, the report says, will require concerted efforts because more in-put in protected areas will yield sufficient dividends in investments.
The Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife emergency plan of action had been provoked by the recent massacre of close to 130 elephants at the Bouba Ndjidda Trans-frontier National Park. It has a five year span and will cost FCFA 120 billion, 7 billion of which must be injected this 2012. It realization depends on Government support from the Special Fund for Forestry Development to conservation and the rapid and spontaneous financial support from stakeholders and donor bodies.
AFRO-MONTANE FOREST AT A THREAT AS A RESULT OF AGRO-PASTORAL ACTIVITIES IN NW CAMEROON AND THE ACTIVITIES OF MBOSCUDA TO COMBAT DEFORESTATION.
The tropical montane foresets of the North West Rgion of Cameroon also known as the Bamenda Highlands forests are located within latitude 6°0TN and 6°1TN and Longitude lOo20'E and lOo35'E. Within this savanna zone, agriculture is mainly traditional and there is high dependency on the forest for subsistence. Traditional farming involving bush fallowing, slash and burn or shifting cultivation are the typical farming system in this zone which is practice alongside traditional grazing with it associated activities to sustain forage. Intensification of livestock farming (increasing the number of stock beyond the carrying capacity of the land in the same traditional system) and farming within mountain slopes causes deforestation, pasture degradation and environmental pollution which should be accounted for the emissions of ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can affect the global climate as well as the regional soil quality. Climate changes can seriously impact on agriculture in Cameroon, where adjustment measures such as increased irrigation are expensive and often not possible. Adapting agriculture to changed climate conditions is likely to requires high financial investments Cameroon may not be able to raise and thus the only present possible measures is to educate local communities on strategies of climate change mitigation.
Adaptation to change is better achieved through diversification, (keeping small stock of animals to reduced overgrazing and engaging in other income generating measures like trade or agro-forestry and modernisation of the farming system), reducing the negative impacts of extreme events like droughts, floods, diseases and maintaining environmental integrity in order to increase human wellbeing in the long term. Intensified animal husbandry and crop farming in traditional methods, therefore, has negative impacts on biodiversity and on ecosystem services such as food and water availability through trampling, muddying of streams, destruction of streams banks, burning, clearing, overhavesting of non timber forest products and indiscriminate felling of trees. At the same time biodiversity in the form of forests, functional soils or genetic resources (inherent knowledge of pastoralists of certain highly nutritive and environmental friendly plants which can be propagated) can play an important role in mitigating climate change, and reducing vulnerability to climate change as well as supporting societies in adapting to it. In most of these mountain areas of the Bamenda Highlands, forest clearing reduces the water storage functionality in catchments. In combination with floods and droughts induced by climate change, people suffer from the loss of biodiversity necessary for man and animals, erosion and water shortage. Most streams that root their source from these forest have become ephemeral and flows only in the rainy season.
Traditional grazing and tradition crop farming with it associated burning practices alters the vegetation into a fire climax, thereby distorting the roosting habitats for wild animals and nesting places for many birds. The serious destruction of the mountain forest by farmers and graziers without restrictions within the Ijim-Kilum ridge leads to erosion of key-stone species vital for the survival of food chains and causes the extinction of species by habitat loss. Unsustainable exploitation of non timber forest products by pastoralists and non pastoralists is an important threat to biodiversity as it enhances the degradation of these resources.
Our current activities to combat deforestation and land degradation
There is a gradual Modernisation of the grazing system and the farming system from semi intensive to intensive. This means ranching, cross-breeding and pasture improvement like planting of Bracharia, stylosanthes, guatamala, clovers, provision of fertilizers to farmers and demarcation of farmlands and grazing lands from the forest in order to stop encroachment.
There is also a domestication and propagation of browse plants to protect montane forest niches against livestock invasion. Planting of trees or afforestation should has been one of our major activities e in order to reduce the effects of desertification, trees like Acacia and Luceana that stores water are propagated while we eliminate Eucalyptus trees which are environmentally unfriendly.
We also encourage the Sedentarisation of the pastoralists which necessary because their movements help to destabilised the ecosystem and causes a series of problems along their way though sedentarisation has its own loop holes because of overgrazing.
In a bit to combat over grazing, we liaise with the Ministry of Livestock and diversify to make the pastoralists avoid overstocking of livestock but do farming as well (Agro-pastoralism).
We also make sure that pastoralists are sensitized on the importance of avoiding or controlling bush burning. Irrigation system in certain localities introduced to bring water closer to pastoralists in the dry season so that they would avoid bush burning and seasonal migration especially in Ndop zone.
In line with this, MBOSCUDA encourages Mbororo-Fulani pastoralists to construct paddocks where cattle could be confined at night and the creation of grazing reserves.
We have also successfully lobbied the state to extend Veterinary coverage to cover all the Mbororo-Fulani communities so that disease caused by climate change and environmental degradation would be controlled or eradicated.
Above all, the most important thing is that we try to give formal education a priority to the Mbororo-Fulani pastoralists because if they are educated, they would be able to cope with their complex and dynamic environment.
The Agro-pastoral extension programme of MBOSCUDA is the most challenging and preoccupying component because of its associated problems and limited funds to cover the whole programme in the region. However in a bit to solve some of the problems, MBOSCUDA has been carrying out some local projects:
Successfully established and formalised a multi-stakeholder platform for dialogue, information sharing and negotiation on sustainable land management,
Explained, clarified and vulgarises laws on land use, environment and pasture management to users,
Reinforced capacity and skills of multiple users to improve soil fertility and pasture management, reduce bush burning and Ankara,
Regenerated key conflict water catchments areas (Upper Sabga, Bamunka hilltop, Wainama, Bamessing, Babungo) and cattle drinking points.
Improved on the management of natural resources through awareness raising, capacity building and support to natural resource regeneration activities in Bainjong and Mbam in Boyo and Baba 11 and Alatening in Mezam.
Created awareness on environmental mal-practices including bush burning, deforestation, illegal and disorganised transhumance practices, as well as unsustainable farming, grazing and forestry practices in Mbororo communities.
Improved on the availability of water through protection and management of water catchments
Through the Agro-pastoral extension programme of MBOSCUDA, there are future plans to this sector though very challenging since it requires a lot of funds. Interestingly enough many pastoralists are increasingly becoming aware of the problems and are demanding for government assistance. The following plans are in place pending execution:
Consolidate what has already been done so far in this sector,
Work with stakeholders in the sector,
Enlarge and extend activities to more beneficiaries and wider geographical area,
Solicit for support from government departments and other stakeholders,
Develop strategies for better access to the natural resources for both the farming and pastoralist communities and also assist to settle the chronic farmer-grazier problems,
Throughout the Region more intense competition and more frequent conflicts over land and natural resources have rapidly increased due to growing population pressure and the increasing value of land and resources. This is applicable in some localities where pressure on land has manifested so rapidly in recent years. The pluralistic nature of tenure often underpins resource–related conflicts as competitors for the same land or resources can appeal to entirely different and irreconcilable tenure system. Mbororo pastoralists need land, access to resources, water points and environmental education.
Joro HAMIDOU IBRAHIM
MBOSCUDA Agro-pastoral program
The Impacts of Global Climate Change in Africa: the Lake Chad, Adaptation and Vulnerability
Alhaji Bukar Kuya House, Opposite Aburos Mosque,
Fezzan Ward, Fezzan, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Climate, Water, Lake, Africa, Adaptation, Dam, Nigeria, River, Fishing, United Nations
The ongoing Climate change is affecting the Lake Chad water which sustains the lives of over eight million
people that are depending on it mostly pastoral farmers, fishermen, the Kanuri, Mbororo and the Tuareg
indigenous communities among others, and adaptation to this natural catastrophe or disaster is further
compounding the situation. This research work discovered how the rate of deforestation, desertification and
hydro electric dams constructions among other human activities influenced by adaptation to this climate
change are increasing in the region and how its impacts are affecting the indigenous communities and other
rural dwellers living around the lake, this trend resulted in numbers of recommendations towards adapting to
this climate change while protecting millions of peoples from this ongoing disaster. Further this project
aimed at ensuring awareness at the international level so that experts, governments and all other
stakeholders can contribute to prevent the adverse effects of climate change and to ensure a stable
development of the Lake Chad Africa and the indigenous as well as other communities depending on this
lake for their survival.
The “Lake Chad” is one of the world’s largest and most historical Lake located
in the Sahel region of Africa (lat. 12:30 N to 14:30 N and long. 13:00E to 15:30
E ) which is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change bordering
North-Eastern Nigeria, North-Western Cameroon, South-Eastern Niger and
South Western Chad republics. The lake was 25,000 km square in the 1940s as
indicated by the historians and some geo- archaeological and historical
evidences, the recent of which was the accidental discovery of an ancient Canoe
dating back to over three thousand years (3000) located in about Six hundred
kilometers (600) away from the present day bank of the Lake in the Nigerian
Territory, in the year 1992 by a peasant farmer from the Kanuri inhabited desert
areas of Damaturu-Nigeria, while digging a well in quest of water for his
domestic activities as reported by Abubakar, B. (IJNA 37.2,2008), but due to the
continues incessant impacts of climate change in Africa which resulted in the
incessant drying of rivers especially those feeder rivers supplying over 90 % of
the Lake water like the River Shari in the republic of Cameroon and the river
Yobe in Nigeria has resulted those community living along the courses or banks
of the feeder rivers to be blocking the rivers from supplying the water in to the
Lake while trying to adapt to this climate change situation by building Dams
along these feeder rivers in quest of water for their irrigational activities as well
as other activities like the generation of Hydro electric city and other relevant
activities. This situation has resulted in the reduction of the water of the Lake to
just 1800 km square and presently the Lake is at (lat. 12:50 N to 13:00 N and
long. 14:50 to 15:00 E). Hence this situation has already started causing
problems to the indigenous communities living around and depending on the
Lake for their survival, because there is increasing drop in fishing activities in
the lake as well as reduction in water supply for pastoral and irrigation farming
activities in addition to other secondary impacts like the increasing rate of ruralurban
migration, job loses and desert encroachments due to the growing
numbers of people running into the fire wood selling businesses which depends
on the deforestation of the shrubs and the little scattered trees serving as a
shelter belt between the Sahara desert located in the north of the Sahel region and
the fertile Lands.
It was in view of the above, I came up with the under listed
1. Since the geology of the Lake Chad basin is indicating that the basin is
holding one of the world’s largest reserves of underground water, The
United Nations in collaboration with the governments of the member
countries of the “Lake Chad Commission” should jointly source for fund
and invest in redeveloping the Chad basin area, through modern irrigation
agriculture water project like the one commission in Libya in the early
2. The River Congo in the Democratic Republic of Congo presently flowing
in to the Atlantic Ocean and which was geographically thought to be
among the ancient or earlier major feeder rivers of the Lake in the past,
should be diverted to be flowing in to the Lake again.
3. The governments of the member countries of the Lake Chad Commission
in collaboration with the African Union (AU) and the Economic
Community of the West African State (ECOWAS) should encourage and
attract foreign investment into the Lake Chad area to help revive the Lake.
4. The Lake Chad research institutes should be properly funded.
5. Non-agricultural investments should be encouraged in order to avoid the
growing pressure on fishing on the already drying lake.
6. Lake Chad University should be established by all or any of the
stakeholders in order to provide jobs, promote research and education for
the children of the inhabitants.
7. Since oil prospectors are already discovering new oil fields within the Lake
Chad Region as in the case of the Lake Chad basin areas of the republics of
Chad and Niger, the Lake Chad commission should ensure the employment
of the inhabitants of this area is given an upper priority in this new
emergent petroleum industries in order to reduce pressure and over
dependence on this Lake.
8. The United Nations Environmental Program and relevant stakeholders on
water issues should assist in their capacities and technical know-how in
preventing the pollution of the lake from the newly emergent petroleum
industries within the Lake Chad basin.
9. The indigenous communities should be mainstream into the decision
Making processes in reviving the lake as well as fighting climate change.
10. Expert on climate change should be organizing series of educative
Conferences, seminars, workshops and training on climate change and
I believe that if the above-mentioned suggestions /recommendations are adopted
and implemented it will help protect the Lake Chad from completely drying up
in one hand and save the lives of millions of people and animals depending on
the Lake for their survival which is facing the impacts of climate change.
Thanks for listening.
Abubakar, B. 2008, the Perception of Archaeology in Africa: Opportunities and Potential, IJNA 37.2, 387-
Babagana, A. 2007, Water Availability, Supply and its Associated Problems in Rural Communities of Borno
State. A. Case Study of Nganzai Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria 10-19. (Unpublished)
My experience about volunteering is in Apple Day to celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2012. This event was held at Car Free Day Dago, Bandung. In that event, we (volunteer) socialize to citizen about minimalize the usage of plastic bottle. So, we change the bottle which they bring with one apple.